Phonological Processes

Phonological processes are typically developing speech sound errors which occur in children.  These processes usually remediate themselves by age 5.5.

The most common processes include:

Final consonant deletion- the deletion of a final consonant in a word (e.g. “bed” becomes “be”)

Fronting- is the substitution of sounds in the front of the mouth for back sounds (e.g. “cup” becomes “tup”)

Stopping- is the substitution of a sound which momentarily stops the airflow, for those which are “*noisy” sounds (e.g. “sail” becomes “tail.”)

Cluster reduction- is the deletion of one or more consonants from a 2 or 3 word cluster (e.g. “spot” becomes “pot”)

Stridency Deletion- is the deletion or substitution of a “*noisy” sound (e.g. “fin” becomes “in”)

Gliding- is when an /r/ becomes a /w/ or /l/ becomes a /w/ or /j/ (e.g. “rail” becomes “whale”)

*noisy sounds include: /f/ /v/ /sh/ /ch/ /j/ /s,z/

When these processes occur more than 40% of the time in a child’s speech, it may negatively impact his/her intelligibility.

For more information on phonological processes and how to remediate them, please visit :